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Method 2: Classic methylphenidate synthesis []. Method 3: Another synthesis route of methylphenidate which applies Darzens reaction to obtain aldehyde as an intermediate. This route is significant for its selectivity. Elsevier Health Sciences. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 19 December Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Pubchem Compound. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Biological Psychiatry. Cambridge University Press. Academic Press. Pharmaceutical Journal. Archived from the original on 21 November Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 30 January Current Opinion in Pharmacology.

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North Am. Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 17 May Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. Is methylphenidate useful for treating adolescents with ADHD? The Journal of Family Practice.

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Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 30 April In Millichap, JG ed. New York: Springer. CNS Drugs. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 12 November Child Adolesc.


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J Clin Psychiatry. A Meta-analytic Review of the Literature". Harm Reduction Journal. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. Handbook of adolescent health care. Curr Psychiatry Rep. Hum Psychopharmacol. The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers improving PFC-dependent function.

Archived from the original on 19 September Retrieved 14 November Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities. The results of this meta-analysis Therapeutic relatively low doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in normal subjects and those with ADHD.

Positron emission tomography PET demonstrates that methylphenidate decreases regional cerebral blood flow in the doroslateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex while improving performance of a spatial working memory task. This suggests that cortical networks that normally process spatial working memory become more efficient in response to the drug. At abused relatively high doses, stimulants can interfere with working memory and cognitive control Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks JS Online.

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Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 2 December Sports Med. United States Food and Drug Administration. Archived PDF from the original on 23 June Retrieved 23 June Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc. October Archived PDF from the original on 14 July Retrieved 13 June Retrieved on 30 April Canadian Family Physician.

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Optometry Clinics. Journal of Learning Disabilities. March Archives of Disease in Childhood. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science. Clinical Neuropharmacology. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 17 December Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 4 November International Journal of Clinical Practice.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Archived from the original on 23 June The management of amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on interruption of the sympathomimetic syndrome with judicious use of benzodiazepines.


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In cases where agitation, delirium, and movement disorders are unresponsive to benzodiazepines, second-line therapies include antipsychotics such as ziprasidone or haloperidol, central alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine, or propofol. Swiss Med Wkly. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience. Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also abused, although it is far less potent.

Such agents also have important therapeutic uses; cocaine, for example, is used as a local anesthetic Chapter 2 , and amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to treat narcolepsy Chapter Despite their clinical uses, these drugs are strongly reinforcing, and their long-term use at high doses is linked with potential addiction, especially when they are rapidly administered or when high-potency forms are given.

Despite decades of clinical use of methylphenidate for ADHD, concerns have been raised that long-term treatment of children with this medication may result in subsequent drug abuse and addiction. However, meta analysis of available data suggests that treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs may have a significant protective effect, reducing the risk for addictive substance use 36, Studies with juvenile rats have also indicated that repeated exposure to methylphenidate does not necessarily lead to enhanced drug-seeking behavior in adulthood However, the recent increase of methylphenidate use as a cognitive enhancer by the general public has again raised concerns because of its potential for abuse and addiction 3, 6— Thus, although oral administration of clinical doses of methylphenidate is not associated with euphoria or with abuse problems, nontherapeutic use of high doses or i.

Substance Abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 1 July May The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. Archived from the original PDF on 15 December Drug and Alcohol Review. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process : the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction.

Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict. Moreover, many of these molecular changes identified are now directly linked to the structural, physiological and behavioral changes observed following chronic drug exposure 60,95,97, Some of these proposed interventions have limitations or are in their infancy However, it is hoped that some of these preliminary findings may lead to innovative treatments, which are much needed in addiction.

Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. This is reflected in the increased, stable and long-lasting level of sensitivity to cocaine and other drugs, and tendency to relapse even after long periods of abstinence. These newly constructed networks function very efficiently via new pathways as soon as drugs of abuse are further taken In this way, the induction of CDK5 gene expression occurs together with suppression of the G9A gene coding for dimethyltransferase acting on the histone H3. A feedback mechanism can be observed in the regulation of these 2 crucial factors that determine the adaptive epigenetic response to cocaine.

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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Drug Metab.